The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals.
From Article 12 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
“No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”
[See: UDHR on the UN website]