Infographic: Beyond Fake News – 10 Types of Misleading News

The work needed to effectively filter information in our media-saturated environment takes time and skill. A recent study showed that the more content we consume, the more our ability to make decisions about its veracity becomes impaired. With 80% of Europeans now regularly going online, it is vital for the sustainable and effective functioning of democracy for citizens to be able to curate their media diets with a healthy critical eye.

Our Beyond Fake News infographic identifies the 10 types of potentially misleading news. It was created to be used in class with real-world examples to spark classroom debate and reflection on the ways that media is constructed.

We are loath to put the term ‘fake news’ in the title of the infographic as, ironically, the term itself is a misleading simplification. Apart from the fact that the term has been co-opted to attack and silence mainstream media, the suggestion that there are simply two types of news; real and fake, doesn’t leave much room for nuance.

Below this article, you will find a pdf version of the infographic as well as a dropdown list containing some resources for teaching the 10 Types of Misleading News.

The 10 types

Of course, neither of the 10 types can be seen in isolation to the others. Partisan news outlets may also be identified as propaganda. And propaganda can be found in a sponsored post. Pseudoscience and conspiracy theories certainly enjoy each others company, see: anti-vaccination movement and climate change denialism. Likewise, completely bogus content may entice its audience with a clickbait headline. Finding examples and identifying which categories they fit into is all part of the fun of using this graphic. 

The motivations

The motivations behind certain kinds of content can be many and varied. Money or power are almost always present however, there may be other motivations at play. A pseudoscientific column about climate change may be motivated by a certain ideological or political cause. However, another form of pseudoscience, health news, which